Afghanistan

Afghanistan

AardvarkCompare.com has shared this information from the US Department of State

 

Office of the Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan

Fact Sheet

January 3, 2017

More information about Afghanistan is available on the Afghanistan Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.

U.S.-AFGHANISTAN RELATIONS

Afghanistan remains an important partner of the United States in the fight against terrorism, working with us to eliminate the remnants of al-Qaeda and its affiliates. In order to strengthen Afghanistan’s capabilities as a partner, and to improve the lives of the Afghan people, we continue to invest U.S. resources to help Afghanistan improve its security, governance, institutions and economy. Our strong bilateral partnership is guided by the Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the United States of America (SPA) signed in May 2012, which lays out respective economic and political commitments, as well as by the Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA) signed in September 2014, which lays out mutual security understandings. In July 2012, following the entry into force of the SPA, President Obama designated Afghanistan a Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA).

U.S. Security Support for Afghanistan

The United States military has been engaged in Afghanistan since 2001. There have been 2,247 U.S. military deaths in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2016. Over 20,000 U.S. service members have been wounded in action. In 2003, NATO assumed leadership of the United Nations-mandated International Security Assistance Force Mission (ISAF). At its height, ISAF included more than 130,000 troops from 51 NATO and partner nations. ISAF forces fought alongside the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) as the international community worked to improve ANDSF capabilities. U.S. force levels peaked at roughly 100,000 in 2011, and began to decrease through 2014, as the ANDSF gained strength.

ISAF officially ended on December 31, 2014, with the ANDSF taking over full responsibility for security in Afghanistan on January 1, 2015, when the United States and NATO formally ended their combat role in Afghanistan and transitioned to a new mission. On January 1, 2015, NATO launched the Resolute Support Mission (RSM), a non-combat mission focused on providing train, advise, and assist support to the ANDSF. In addition to the United States, there are 38 NATO Ally and partner nations contributing troops to RSM. The BSA and a NATO Status of Forces agreement signed in September 2014 provide the legal basis for U.S. and NATO forces to remain in Afghanistan.

The United States had approximately 9,800 troops in Afghanistan in 2015 and 2016, drawing down to 8,400 in January 2017. In addition to contributing to RSM, which helps Afghan forces become more effective, professional, and sustainable, U.S. forces are continuing to disrupt and degrade al Qa’ida and Islamic State activities in Afghanistan, through partnered operations with Afghan forces, as well as unilateral operations. Combatting the Islamic State and the remnants of al-Qa’ida will continue to be a priority for the United States, as we work to ensure that Afghanistan is never again a safe haven for terrorism.

U.S. Assistance to Afghanistan

The United States is part of a coalition of more than 100 countries and organizations that provide both security and civilian assistance to Afghanistan. The United States and more than 30 other nations provide financial support to the ANDSF. The international community made almost $5 billion available for the ANDSF in 2016, with the United States providing the greatest share. At the NATO Warsaw Summit in July 2016, nations pledged to extend their financial support for the ANDSF through 2020.

Similarly, at the Brussels Conference on Afghanistan in October 2016, the United States and other international donors committed to provide Afghanistan $15.2 billion in civilian assistance through 2020. In its turn, Afghanistan committed to strengthen governance, rule of law, fiscal sustainability, and human rights. These commitments are codified in the “Self-Reliance through Mutual Accountability Framework” (SMAF), which was updated in Brussels. The United States and others in the international community currently support Afghanistan with a broad array of assistance programs.

The United States uses bilateral incentive programs and the SMAF to hold the Afghan Government accountable to mutually agreed reform commitments. We focus our development assistance on promoting economic growth, building the capacity of civilian institutions, improving the performance of the justice system, and helping the government maintain, and improve upon, the gains made over the last decade in health, education, and women’s rights. The United States also provides support for Afghan civil society, promotes increased respect for human rights, helps to fight the illegal trade in narcotics, and continues to provide significant humanitarian support.

Bilateral Economic Relations

Afghanistan signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement with the United States in 2004. The TIFA is the primary forum for bilateral trade and investment discussions between the two countries. Exports from the U.S. to Afghanistan increased 520% from $150 million in 2004 to $721 million in 2016. Efforts are underway to improve the business climate, including strengthening Afghanistan’s commercial regulatory and legal framework to attract foreign trade and investment, as well as to stimulate additional trade with the United States through trade capacity development. Afghanistan joined the World Trade Organization in July 2016. Implementation of new, WTO-compliant legislation and policies will improve Afghanistan’s business environment and trade regime, and provide an international legal framework that will help further Afghanistan’s regional integration.

Political Relations

Following controversial 2014 presidential elections in Afghanistan, the United States helped to mediate a political agreement that called for the United Nations to audit the vote, with the resulting winner becoming President and the runner-up the Chief Executive, a new position created in the agreement. The United States remains firmly committed to the unity government of Afghanistan that emerged from this process, marking the first democratic transfer of power in Afghanistan’s history. President Ashraf Ghani and Chief Executive Abdullah Abdullah concluded a successful State Visit in March 2015. The unity government has been a reliable and capable partner for the United States, one which welcomes our security presence and utilizes our development support to enact critical reforms aimed at providing Afghans with effective and inclusive governance, representative of all segments of society.

Afghanistan's Membership in International Organizations

Afghanistan and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, and World Bank. Afghanistan also is a Partner for Cooperation with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and is working toward accession to the WTO.

Bilateral Representation

Ambassador Hugo Llorens has been the U.S. Special Chargé d’Affaires since December 2016; other principal embassy officials are listed in the Department's Key Officers List.

Afghanistan maintains an embassy in the United States at 2341 Wyoming Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel: 202-483-6410).

Hugo Llorens

Special Chargé d’Affaires

Term of Appointment: December 2016 to present

Ambassador Hugo Llorens is the Special Chargé d’Affaires of the U.S. Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan, where he leads the largest Embassy in the world with a multi-billion dollar budget, and a combined staff of 3,000 U.S. local and Third Country employees representing 19 U.S. government agencies.  From October 2013 to 2016 he served as Principal Officer of the U.S. Consulate General in Sydney, Australia, where he directed the operations of the oldest diplomatic mission in the Asia Pacific region (established in 1836).  Previously Ambassador Hugo Llorens was the Assistant Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul from May 2012 to June a 2013.  In that position, he served as the Chief Operating Officer of the largest Embassy in the world with a combined staff of 3,000 U.S. local and Third Country employees representing 19 U.S. government agencies.  Prior to his assignment in Afghanistan, Llorens was Ambassador-in-Residence and a faculty advisor at the National War College in Fort McNair Washington DC. 

Llorens served as U.S. Ambassador to Honduras from September 2008 to July 2011.  Before his nomination and confirmation as Ambassador, he served for two years as the Deputy Chief of Mission (DCM) at the American Embassy in Madrid, where he took up his duties on September 1, 2006.  Ambassador Llorens was also Deputy Chief of Mission at the American Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where he served for three years from August 2003 until July 2006.

From 2002-2003, Mr. Llorens was Director of Andean Affairs at the NSC, where he was the principal advisor to the President and National Security Advisor on issues pertaining to Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador.  Prior to the NSC, he served for three years as Principal Officer at the Consulate General in Vancouver, Canada.  In Vancouver, he created a novel multi-agency “Law Enforcement Hub” that included the opening of FBI, ATF, U.S. Customs, Secret Service, and Regional Security offices to work with Canadian counterparts on counterterrorism and international crime investigations.

From 1997-1999, Mr. Llorens was Deputy Director of the Office of Economic Policy in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs where he helped launch the FTAA negotiations in 1998.  As a 30-year veteran, he has served in economic, commercial, and consular positions in Tegucigalpa, La Paz, Asunción, San Salvador, and Manila. 

Mr. Llorens received his Master of Science in National Security Studies, National War College in 1997; Master of Arts in Economics, University of Kent at Canterbury, England in 1980; and Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service from Georgetown University in 1977.

Mr. Llorens has earned numerous awards for distinguished performance, including eight Superior Honor and five Meritorious Honor Awards.  He is a past recipient of the Cobb Award for excellence in the promotion of U.S. business, was runner-up for the Saltzman Award for distinguished performance in advancing U.S. international economic interests, and was nominated for the James Baker Award for superior performance by a Deputy Chief of Mission.  He speaks Spanish, Tagalog, and some French.

He is married to Lisett Aparicio Llorens, and they have two sons, Andrew 26 and Dirk 24.